Here are 5 countries that were never colonized by any country:
- Japan – Throughout its history, Japan managed to avoid colonization by foreign powers. Japan’s ability to resist colonization can be attributed to various factors. One key factor was its geographical location, which made it more difficult for foreign powers to establish and maintain a colonial presence. Additionally, Japan’s strong centralized government, military strength, and strategic diplomacy played crucial roles in deterring potential colonizers. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan underwent a process of modernization and rapid industrialization known as the Meiji Restoration. Japan’s victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 further bolstered its status as a major power and demonstrated its ability to defend its sovereignty against foreign aggression.
- Ethiopia is the only African country that was never colonized by a European power. Despite several attempts by European powers to colonize Ethiopia, the country successfully maintained its independence and sovereignty throughout its history. In the late 19th century, Ethiopia faced military aggression from Italy, which aimed to establish an Italian colony in Ethiopia. However, Ethiopia was able to successfully resist the Italian invasion and maintain its independence in the Battle of Adwa in 1896. Ethiopia played a key role in the decolonization movements in Africa and became a symbol of African resistance to colonialism. Today, Ethiopia is a sovereign nation with a rich history and culture that remains unique and distinctive in Africa and the world.
- Nepal is one of the few countries in the world that was never colonized by a foreign power. Throughout its history, Nepal has maintained its independence and sovereignty. Despite being located between two major colonial powers, British India (later the British Raj) and Qing China, Nepal was able to resist colonization. Nepal’s geographical terrain, including its mountainous terrain and strategic location, played a role in deterring foreign powers. The country’s rulers, known as the Shah dynasty, successfully defended Nepal from external threats. Although Nepal was not colonized, it did experience some influence from British India during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Nepal signed a series of treaties with the British that defined its borders and established diplomatic relations.
- Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is indeed one of the few countries in Southeast Asia that was never colonized by a European power. Throughout its history, Thailand successfully maintained its independence and sovereignty despite being situated in a region where neighboring countries, such as Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam, faced colonization by European powers. The Thai monarchy played a crucial role in diplomacy and in negotiating favorable treaties that helped safeguard the country’s independence. While Thailand managed to avoid formal colonization, it did face external pressures and concessions during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The country underwent a process of modernization under King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), who introduced reforms to strengthen the nation and negotiate treaties on more equal terms with Western powers.
- Mongolia is one of the few countries in the world that was never colonized by a foreign power. Throughout its history, Mongolia managed to maintain its independence and sovereignty despite being located between two major powers, China and Russia. Mongolia’s history is marked by periods of strong central leadership, including the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and his successors, which created a powerful and expansive empire across Asia. During the 20th century, Mongolia experienced political changes and became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. However, it maintained its distinct identity and cultural heritage, and after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Mongolia regained its independence and transitioned to a democratic system.
Other countries that were never colonized by any country are Iran (formerly Persia), Saudi Arabia, Bhutan.
These countries were never colonized in the traditional sense of the word, some of them have had periods of foreign domination or influence throughout their histories. Additionally, some of these countries have colonized other territories themselves at various points in history.